Normalise

Normalise image

What are the applications and benefits?

Hot working processes such as casting, forging and rolling can cause steel microstructure to become  non uniform with a coarse grain. This has a negative impact on the mechanical properties of the steel for subsequent processing. Normalising homogenises the structure of the steel and refines the grain size. This  improves machinability, removes manufacturing stresses and causes  the steel to respond more consistently to subsequent heat treatment processes, especially harden and temper.

Normalising is essential in the case of forgings that have been hot worked and could have developed a coarse grain structure. Using heat from the forging operation is very often interpreted as normalising but there is no accurate measurement of temperature and the product is not cooling from a uniform temperature hence the full rewards are not always obtained. Other hot work operations such as induction bending also require normalising  to return the steel to its original structure.  It can also be beneficial to normalise rolled plate and bar before machining as it can reduce  distortion problems on subsequent heat treatment operations. Con Mech recommends normalising prior to any quench and temper as this approach enhances our ability to achieve mechanical and impact values along with hardness  specifications.

How does the process work?

Normalising involves heating the material to a temperature 30°C – 80°C above its transformation temperature ( this  depends on the material). The components are then allowed to cool in still air. After heat treatment with an air/combusted gas furnace the appearance will be  dull grey  with a flaky scale easily removed by shot blasting.

Which materials can be treated?

Normalising is mainly used on carbon and low alloyed steels. Typical steels treated include: AISI 4130, AISI 8630; F70; F22; F65; F52; AISI 4140

How can Con Mech Engineers help?

We can work to your specification or we can work with you to  assess your application, what mechanical properties you require and how normalising might achieve the results required

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